In 1992, the UN
General Assembly, as requested by the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development (UNCED), adopted resolution 47/188 calling for the establishment
of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the elaboration of an international
convention to combat desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought
and/or desertification, particularly in Africa (INCD). The INCD met five times
between May 1993 and June 1994, during which delegates drafted the Convention
and four regional Annexes for Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and
the Northern Mediterranean
The Convention to Combat Desertification was adopted on 17 June 1994, along with
resolutions recommending urgent action for Africa and interim arrangements for
the period between adoption of the CCD and its entry into force.
1st Conference of the Parties (CoP)1997
scepticism expressed in Rio at the idea of a global desertification convention,
the progress made thus far bodes well for the future. One hundred thirteen countries
have ratified the Convention and more are expected. A large number of developing
countries participated in the INCD process. New ground has been broken in NGO
participation in intergovernmental negotiations.
All of these achievements
demonstrate a political will that was lacking two decades ago following the adoption
of the 1977 Plan of Action to Combat Desertification. The CCD is a major accomplishment
for Africa and for the world, but the real success will be determined by whether
it changes the lives of those living in the drylands.
to Combat Desertification
objective of this Convention is to Combat Desertification and mitigate the effects
of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/or desertification, particularly
in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by international
cooperation and partnership arrangements, in the framework of an integrated approach
which is consistent with Agenda 21, with a view to contributing to the achievement
of sustainable development in affected areas.
this objective will involve long-term integrated strategies that focus simultaneously,
in affected areas, on improved productivity of land, and the rehabilitation, conservation
and sustainable management of land and water resources, leading to improved living
conditions, in particular at the community level.
4 General obligations
Parties shall implement their obligations under this Convention, individually
or jointly, either through existing or prospective bilateral and multilateral
arrangements or a combination thereof, as appropriate, emphasizing the need to
coordinate efforts and develop a coherent long-term strategy at all levels.
pursuing the objective of this Convention, the Parties shall:
an integrated approach addressing the physical, biological and socio- economic
aspects of the processes of desertification and drought;
due attention, within the relevant international and regional bodies, to the situation
of affected developing country Parties with regard to international trade, marketing
arrangements and debt with a view to establishing an enabling international economic
environment conducive to the promotion of sustainable development;
strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and
mitigate the effects of drought;
cooperation among affected country Parties in the fields of environmental protection
and the conservation of land and water resources, as they relate to desertification
subregional, regional and international cooperation;
within relevant intergovernmental organizations;
institutional mechanisms, if appropriate, keeping in mind the need to avoid duplication;
the use of existing bilateral and multilateral financial mechanisms and arrangements
that mobilize and channel substantial financial resources to affected developing
country Parties in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.
developing country Parties are eligible for assistance in the implementation of
Latest UN Update on CCD from IISD