and Marine Resources
of fish stocks is carried out by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
which estimates that 70 per cent of commercial fishing grounds are depleted or
recovering from overfishing.
A UN legal agreement to regulate fishing on the high seas, negotiated as an outgrowth
of the Earth Summit, was adopted in December 1995. Nearly 60 countries have signed
the agreement, which aims to prevent overfishing and ease international tensions
over competition for dwindling fish stocks.
International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling 1946.In
1982 moratorium on Whaling.
Barcelona Convention for the Mediterranean. Cartagena Convention
for the Wider Caribbean 1988 Law of the Sea Convention 1982Helsinki Convention
on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area 1992.
Marine Pollution Oil pollution from ships has
been cut by 60 per cent since 1981, after the adoption of a legal Convention negotiated
by the International Maritime Organization, a UN agency.
The treaty, which now applies to more than 85 per cent of the world's merchant
fleet, also sets strict controls for disposal of garbage by ships.
In 1995, Governments adopted an action plan on land-based sources of marine pollution
Convention on the Control of transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, Basle 1989London Dumping Convention 1991
Paris Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East
Atlantic 1992.Oslo Convention on Reduction and Dumping of Wastes in the North
is no Global UN Convention dealing with maintaining
fresh or drinking water.
At the Earth Summit+5 session, Governments called for
talks to consider a strategic approach.
Helsinki Convention on the Protection and Use of transboundary
Watercourses and Lakes 1992
More information contact Water
1997 UN-organized assessment of freshwater resources
found that one-third of the world's population
lives in countries facing moderate to severe shortages
of usable water; by 2025. That figure may reach
two-thirds unless action is taken.
Islands Freshwater The following could serve as
one of the important bases for small island developing States
in implementing relevant portions of programme area D of Chapter
18 of Agenda 21.
The International Ministerial Conference on Drinking Water
and Environmental Sanitation , Netherlands in 1994, adopted
the Political Statement and Action Programme.
A. National action, policies and
maintain and protect watershed areas, irrigation systems,
distribution networks and appropriate catchment systems
and promote effective programmes for water conservation
and prevention of water contamination through, inter alia,
the development of integrated national water plans, the
use of appropriate incentives and regulatory measures,
community involvement in management and conservation,
forest management and reforestation and investment strategies.
appropriate standards for the management of freshwater
resources, and develop and strengthen low-cost monitoring
and assessment capabilities, linked to water resource
databases, for relevant decision- making tools including
forecasting models for water management, planning and
procedures to monitor and respond to the impacts of natural
and environmental hazards, in particular the impacts of
climate change and climate variability, including drought
and sea-level rise, on water resources.
the development and acquisition of appropriate technology
and training for cost-effective sewage disposal, desalination
and rainwater collection to provide sufficiently high
quality potable freshwater, including opportunities for
technology interchange between small island developing
national capacities to make decisions between competing
demands over the allocation of limited water resources.
and strengthen initiatives for regional co-operation in
training and research to assist Governments in the development
and implementation of integrated water resource plans,
including conservation and rehabilitation of watersheds,
protection of groundwater, setting standards for the management
of these resources, fostering public awareness and water
technical assistance for the assessment and/or development
and transfer of appropriate technology for water collection,
distribution and protection, in particular, sewage disposal
access to environmentally sound and energy efficient technologies
for the catchment, production, conservation and delivery
of freshwater, including rainwater catchment, water treatment
systems and desalination, and foster the exchange of information
on water treatment methods.
small island developing States' capacity to develop and
implement integrated water resource plans, including water
resource allocation and management, conservation and rehabilitation
of watersheds, protection of groundwater, fostering public
awareness and water quality monitoring.
training and public awareness campaigns to build up an
endogenous capacity relating to water management and conservation
and appropriate rainwater catchment systems.
the establishment of methodologies aimed at assessing
the adverse impact of climate change on freshwater resources
and develop appropriate response and mitigation measures.