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UK Environmental Law


There have been laws in the UK to control pollution since the 1300's when parliament passed laws to curb the smell from the River Thames polluting their own atmosphere.

Later, Charles 1st banned the use of wood to smelter sand to make glass. There had been a rapid decline in woods to fuel the habit. This lead to a search for another fuel and somebody found that coal could do the job even better. Coal was found near St Helens, where glass is still made to this day. This is a fine early example of environmental law creating business opportunities.

However, until a couple of decades ago, companies' main concern with environmental law was being sued through civil action. This private law is essentially based on contract. Much of the environmental case law arises from competing uses of land. The land disputes became a mechanism of environmental protection.

The most quoted test case was Rylands v Fletcher 1865 (H 774). An escape of water from a reservoir flooded a mine. This classic law case established that the liability for the consequences of non-natural operations on land rests with the owner of the land. The ruling stated:

"Anyone who brings or collects and keeps on his (sic) land anything likely to do mischief it if escapes must keep it at his peril and if he does not do so is prima-facie strictly liable for all that damage which is the natural consequence of its escape"

This ruling had consequences for all who pollute. The decision shows that people who bring any "beasts, water, filth or stench" on to their land have a strict liability to look after it. This liability has been extended to environmental water, fire, gases, oil, chemicals, colliery spoil, poisonous vegetation, and even a chair-o-place at a fairground. But oil from an oil tanker at sea did not qualify - because the oil did not come from the land.
2/3 of companies surveyed said: "we already go beyond the requirements of law"

The strict liability is a stronger requirement than trying to prove negligence. It is not a matter of whether the owner should have foreseen that their operations could escape. If something escapes, you are liable. The trouble was that to use this precedent and any other common law, you had to be directly affected in order to take a case against a company for pollution. Clearly, the environment needs more protection than that afforded by the immediate neighbours.

In the last twenty years, there has been a major increase in UK parliamentary environment law. It now ensures that all companies attain a minimum standard of environmental performance. It encourages investment in environmental initiatives. It helps to conform to initiatives from other partner organisations and play our part in the world. Increasingly, EU directives drive UK environment law.

The Environmental Agency (EA) was formed in April 1996 and combines the control of waste (Waste Regulation Agency WRA), water (National Rivers Authority NRA)and air (Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution).
Not for the faint hearted:

Complete UK law since 1997 http://www.hmso.gov.uk/legis.htm


The Regulatory authorities - the Environment Agency and local authorities police UK environment law. The EA has produced an Enforcement Code. The Code comprises a general statement of its enforcement policy and a guide to enforcement for its officers.

The Code sets out principles to:
apply the law 'proportionately', consistently, and transparently, and to target action at activities giving rise to the most serious environmental damage.

The EA expects 'relevant good practice' to be followed and, where this has not been done, expects the business to assess the risks and satisfy the EA that any necessary actions will comply with the law.

The Code also contains a new non-statutory right for businesses to object to enforcement measures proposed by the EA. The 'right' is open for businesses - and presumably individuals, to object to enforcement notices served by the EA, by making representations directly to the Agency official concerned.

Environmental Protection Act 1990

The central theme of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 is to integrate all forms of pollution control. There are three parts:

Part 1: Integrated Pollution Control (IPC)

IPC covers emissions to land, air and water of the most complex and polluting companies. The "best practicable means" was used for many years before BATNEEC was introduced in the Environmental Protection Act.


In order to operate companies must gain authorisation from the EA. Such companies must show that they use the Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC) to minimise their emissions. It should not to be confused with CATNIP - the Cheapest Available Techniques Not Incurring Prosecution. The application of BATNEEC is not the only determining factor, but one feature of a complex of objectives. If a process produced a recognised health hazard, applying BATNEEC would not get you authorisation.
The essence of BATNEEC is that the effectiveness of the chosen technology must be demonstrated by the operator. The phrase embraces not only the technology but also the manner the process is operated including adequate personnel and premises.

BATNEEC strikes a balance between the best available technology and management techniques with what the sector can generally afford.

Companies must show that they use BATNEEC to minimise their emissions. As the term is relatively new, it is not entirely clear what it means. Much will be left to the enforcing authority and future case law to clarify its meaning.

Companies applying for authorisation to operate with the Environment Agency must show they use BATNEEC. The application of BATNEEC is not the only determining factor of authorisation, but one feature of a complex of objectives. If a process produced a recognised health hazard, applying BATNEEC would not get authorisation.
A piggery applied for authorisation under Part 1 of the EPA and was refused by the local authority. The piggery appealed. The Inspector argued that there had been a long history of public complaints about smells and of failures of management practice, and showed there was no attempt to meet BATNEEC. Eventually the inspector won the case, indicating that consistent breaches from the past may well count against companies in the future.

In reducing emissions to the lowest practicable level, account will be taken of local conditions and circumstances, both of the process and the environment.

From the DoE Guidance on the Meaning of BATNEEC, "BAT" refers to:
  • 'best' means the most effective in 'preventing, minimising or rendering harmless polluting emissions'. Hence a number of processes can be considered 'best', although each would have to demonstrate its effectiveness.
  • 'available' does not necessarily imply that the technology is in general use but that it is generally accessible - and that can be outside the UK
  • 'techniques' refers both to technology or process and how it is operated.
BAT is a whole concept. It consists not just of the technology but the whole process. BAT includes matters such as staff numbers, working methods, training, supervision and manner of operating the process.

The "NEEC" is to be considered independently in its application to new and existing processes. In relation to new processes the presumption is that the best available techniques will be used. If there is only modest gain for disproportionate costs, then that can be considered.
In upgrading old processes, there is guidance on NEEC in Articles 12 & 13 of the Air Framework Directive.

For processes existing prior to 1987, the enforcing authority shall take account of the:
  • plant's technical characteristics
  • rate of utilisation and length of remaining life
  • nature and volume of polluting emissions from it
  • desirability of not entailing excessive costs for the plants concerned in their particular economic situation

BATNEEC is often expressed in technological terms, so that the enforcing agency specifies equipment to satisfy requirements. There are moves to seeing BATNEEC more in terms of emission or performance standards. Once set, the operator could choose the means to achieve, which may involve new technologies.

It is implicit in the BATNEEC and the Environment Protection Act that there is a duty on operators to keep abreast of new technology. An environment management system would keep up to date and continually improve.

The European Commission is preparing notes on the application of BATNEEC to various processes, dealing with abatement options, monitoring techniques, storage and handling, and emission controls. While they have no legal status, they will provide criteria for authorities dealing with applications for authorisation in the future. BREF Notes have been published for heavy metal emissions, ammonia, benzene, sulphuric acid and nitric acid production, cement manufacture and hazardous waste incineration.

Click for BREF Notes


The EA ensures that operators have regard to the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO is the disposal with the lowest environmental impact in the long term. The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution states that the aim of BPEO is:

"to find the optimum combination of available methods of disposal so as to limit damage to the environment to the greatest extent achievable for a reasonable and acceptable total combined costs to industry and the public purse"

Air emissions from lesser polluting industries are covered by Air Pollution Control (APC). This is similar to IPC and is regulated by local authorities - except in Scotland where it is the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency.
BPEO is primarily concerned to select the most appropriate or least damaging environmental alternative for the reception of waste or polluting material.

The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991 set out the processes which are subject to IPC and APC under the EPA. These processes are called 'Part A processes'. It is estimated 5000 such plants are under EA control. They include fuel and power, waste disposal, mineral, chemical, metal, paper and coating manufacturers, tar and bitumen, di-isocyanate, timber, animal and plant treatment.

The processes covered by APC are known as 'Part B processes'. All require local authority authorisation. The EPA gave local authorities powers for the first time to authorise defined classes of processes dealing wit all likely air emissions from such processes. They cover some 12,000 operators, in addition to 15,000 small waste oil burners used in garages and workshops. They include combustion processes, waste incineration / cremation, glass, ceramic, timber processing, maggot breeding, iron & steel foundries, non-ferrous metals, cement & lime processes, industrial finishing of asbestos products, mineral processes, animal and plant treatment, di-isocyanate, coating and printing, small combustion processes and rubber processes, as well as the waste oil burners.

Part 2: Waste on Land

The EPA replaced previous controls in the Control of Pollution Act 1974. It introduces changes in both the waste management licensing system and the bodies responsible for waste regulation and disposal. Local authorities remain the key enforcement bodies, but with extra demands on the waste disposal industry and all producers or handlers of waste. Waste includes household, commercial and industrial waste.

It is no longer possible for a producer of waste to rid themselves of it simply by handing it over to another. There is now a "duty of care" that applies to anybody who carries, keeps, treats, or disposes of waste, or who acts as a third party and arranges matters such as imports or disposal. They must ensure that nobody in the chain commits an offence regarding waste.

Such people must take reasonable measures to prevent the deposit, treatment or disposal of waste, except in accordance with a waste management license. Waste on site should be contained, stored securely, and labelled. It must only be transferred to an authorised person, accompanied by a transfer note that contains sufficient information to handle the waste safely. Local authorities must establish and maintain registers of carriers of controlled waste. An "authorised" person is either a local authority or the holder of a waste management license. Failure to comply is a criminal offence, punishable on summary conviction by a fine up to £5,000 or on conviction on indictment by an unlimited fine. The EPA also imposes a civil liability. This means that any individual or group can claim in Court for costs of damage inflicted upon them by the illegal management of waste under the terms of the EPA.

There is no express "clean-up" obligations. The aim is to establish a relationship of responsibility between the producer and the disposal company to ensure the waste remains in an authorised stream from production to final disposal.
Responsibility for Part IIA of the 1990 Act in Scotland and Wales now rests with the Scottish Executive and the National Assembly for Wales. See consultation latest in England from www.contaminatedland.co.uk

The Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 redefines "waste" according to the definitions in various EU Directives, in particular Framework Directive on Waste 91/156. It seems that absolutely anything can be "waste" in given circumstances. For a substance to be waste, it must be discarded. The DoE have suggested - for guidance only, that you discard something if you dispose or get rid of it. The essence of the concept seems to lie in whether or not a substance or object is being put in its final resting place. But that opens as many questions as it answers!

Part 3 Statutory Nuisance

Statutory nuisance relates to effects which are either prejudicial to human health or interfere with somebody's use of land. The EPA consolidates previous law (especially Public Health Act 1936). Statutory nuisances include smoke, fumes, dust, smell, animals and noise, but not light. This is despite the rapid rise in complaints about excessive light, in particular from domestic security systems and sports grounds.

Statutory nuisances under the EPA include:
  • any premises in such a state as to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance
  • fumes or gases emitted from premises, so as to be prejudicial to health and a nuisance
  • any accumulation or deposit which is prejudicial to health or a nuisance;
  • noise emitted from premises.
A person who fails to comply with an abatement notice will be liable to a fine up to £20,000. The Noise Act 1996 introduces new powers for local authorities to deal with night-time noise from domestic premises.

There are five further parts of the EPA covering "litter authorities", genetically modified organisms, new bodies for nature conservation, powers to restrict importation, provisions for control of stray dogs and banning the burning of straw.

There is also authorisation for the government to issue regulations to implement EU obligations. One such is the Environmental Information Regulation 1992 that enacts EU Directive on Freedom of Access to Information on the Environment 90/313 that relates to freedom of access to information on the environment. Member States must ensure that public authorities are required to make available information relating to the environment to any person on request. Under the regulation each relevant authority must maintain a register of information relating to applications for authorisations, authorisations granted, variation of enforcement and prohibition notices issues, revocations of authorisations, appeals, convictions for offences, and transfers of authorisations. The registers must be available for public inspection free of charge.

Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999

The 1999 Act extends the number of companies that require Integrated Pollution Control from around 2000 to 5000 and extends the requirements of each company to further measures such as energy efficiency. It enables new regulations to be made which will:
  1. implement the requirements of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive;
  2. extend integrated control to around 5,000 extra industrial installations;
  3. take a far wider range of environmental impacts into account such as noise, use of raw materials, accident prevention, site restoration and energy efficiency
More specific Acts relate to Land, Air and Water.

For EA Guidance and IPPC and 1999 Regulation use the search engine at http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/netregs

Workplace: Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974

The environment at work is inextricably linked with the wider environment. Originally this Act included Air Pollution - hence the "etc" bit. This Act requires employers to take care of the health and safety of their employees and other affected person, as far as is reasonably practicable. This term requires employers to assess the risks to health and the costs of alleviating them, and only if the latter seriously outweighs the former, can their responsibility be discharged.

Regulations made under this Act include Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 which require and encourage recognised trade union (and now also 'appointed') representatives to be consulted over all health and safety matters.
HSE Publications Online

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1994 (consolidated 1998) require employers to control exposure of substances to workers by a process of assessment followed by control at source and monitoring and health surveillance.

Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992 derive from EU directives. The most important part of the so-called 'six-pack' requires employers to risk assess all aspects of work before deciding on control arrangements based on methods of prevention. Only competent persons can assess health and safety risk. There is no statutory requirement for environmental risk assessment, although competent persons are required to assess in an Environmental management system.

The Health and Safety Executive and local authorities inspect premises for compliance with H&S law.

Air: Clean Air Act 1993

This Act replaces the Clean Air Acts from the 1950s. Part 1 prohibits the emission of dark smoke from chimneys. Part 2 controls smoke, grit, dust and fumes from any furnace or industrial boiler.

Safety levels for emission to air of certain metals, thallium, arsenic and nickel, were raised by the HMIP in March 1996 by between 80 and 40,000 times. This accommodated releases from cement factories burning chemical wastes but is doubtful whether EU Directive 92/9 intended to accommodate these changes to national guidance values.

Water: Water Acts 1991

The Water Resources Act 1991 seeks to maintain and improve the quality of controlled waters - lakes, rivers, ponds, groundwater and territorial seas. Water quality objectives may also be set under the Act to achieve the purposes of Directive 78/659, which aims to protect or improve fresh waters which could support indigenous fish. The Directive lists the physical and chemical parameters that the UK follows in the Act. They include temperature, dissolved oxygen, Ph, suspended solids, BOD, phosphorus, nitrates, phenolic substances, ammonia, zinc, and copper.
In the UK The convention for drain colours is:
Foul water drain = Red
Surface water = Blue

You cannot allow polluting matter or solid waste to enter controlled waters. You cannot discharge anything other than rainwater to surface water drains, without the consent of the EA. Companies wishing to discharge effluent to sewer must obtain and pay for a consent from the local sewage undertaker, according to the Water Industry Act 1991. This Act has been amended under the Environment Act placing duties on water undertakers to promote the efficient use of water by its customers, and on sewage undertakers to provide first time sewerage connection.

Regulations made under these Water Acts include the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 1989 & 1991 that incorporate the standards of EU Directives, specifying the "wholesomeness" of water supplies. Schedule 2 of the Regulation lists the parameters, and amounts, that are considered. These include colour, turbidity, odour, taste, temperature, hydrogen, sulphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, nitrogen, oxygen, organic carbon, surfactants, phenolics, aluminium, oils, manganese, silver, lead, selenium, pesticides, coliform , conductivity, barium and boron, as well as alkalinity and hardness.

The various Surface Waters Regulations 1989 & 1994 implement Directive 75/440 and 76/464 . They also implement other Directives - 82/176 (mercury and compounds), 83/513 (cadmium and compounds), 84/491 (hexachlorocyclohexane), 86/280 (carbon tetrachloride, DDT, and pentachlorophenol). The regulations classify controlled waters into three categories, according to the presence of these substances.

The regulations specify criteria to determine the suitability of inland waters for abstraction by water undertakers for supply, and treatment before supply, for public use in accordance with the Water Supply Regulations.

In order to prevent rather than cure, the Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991 set out a list of prescribed substances that require close monitoring and control before they can be discharged to water. This is popularly called the "Red List" (introduced in 1989). Pollution from individual discharges is controlled by a system of "consents to discharge" which are determined and issues by the Environment Agency.

Draft regulations were issued in 1996 to cover the system of consents for discharges to water. These arise from changes brought by the Environment Act 1995 to improve the consistency of environmental protection requirements. The new regulations set out the detailed arrangements for the procedures governing applications for consents, and appeals.
information for industry
Good Summary of UK Environmental Law on Water.
Follow “Legislation”

Environment Act 1995

The Act addresses the three areas of land, air and waste.


Contaminated Land. Contaminated land is land to which significant harm is being done or could be done, or may cause pollution of controlled waters Local authorities have to decide these areas, with due regard to guidance issued by the EA. The guidance proposes limits on the definition of contaminated land and significant harm. It sets out a risk assessment based on different levels of risk for different sorts of human health. The EA will play an active role in the clean-up of the most contaminated sites - known as Special Sites.
Latest on Land Contamination Law


Air Quality Strategy (AQS). The Act introduces a strategy based on clear identifiable goals in three broad areas for action. For each of nine pollutants two levels are set to protect human health or the environment. The alert threshold requires an immediate response to prevent damage, while the guideline level is a long term goal which is considered a safe level that can be achieved with new plant. These levels are set along with a timetable for achievement. Air Quality Management Areas, decided and regulated by local authorities, will implement these standards. The Act gives powers to local authorities to control air quality in these areas.

Seventeen revised guidance notes on industrial air pollution covering prescribed processes which emit VOCs were issued in 1996 for consultation. The proposed changes will postpone the planned 5000 tonnes reduction in emissions from smaller plants until 2007. Low solvent coatings have not become available as fast as anticipated and there is a high marginal cost of alternatives.


The National Waste Strategy(NWS) is designed to replace plans under the Environmental Act and requires the government to produce plans for waste management in line with the EU directive. The strategy has three key objectives: to reduce the amount of waste that society produces; to make the best use of the waste that is produced; and to choose waste management practices which minimise the risks to health or the environment. The mechanism for achieving these is waste hierarchy of reduction, re-use, recovery, and disposal as spelt out in the Department of Environment's "Making Waste Work”

The targets are to:
  • Reduce the proportion of controlled waste going to landfill to 60% by 2005
  • Recover 40% of municipal waste by 2005
  • Set a target for overall waste reduction by the end of 1998.
Here the methods of environment management systems are being introduced into the legal apparatus. Taxes have also been introduced to try to meet the targets. The Landfill Tax puts £2 per tonne for "inactive" waste and £7 per tonne for all others. The Waste Clearance Scheme 1996 helps clarify what is "inactive", which is waste that does not decay or have a potential to pollute groundwater or contaminate land.
The following wastes can often be Special Wastes: batteries, sodium lights, oils and oil filters, oily condensate from compressed air installations, paint and ink, chemical wastes, solvents and other similar waste fluids.

Materials contaminated with Special Wastes become Special Wastes themselves. Thus, packaging, cleaning rags, wipers, absorbent materials used for cleaning up spills could all be classified as Special Wastes.

Specific regulations made under this Act include the Special Waste Regulations 1996 which implements the EU Directive on Hazardous Waste. Hazardous waste characteristics are very similar to special waste and often refer to wastes which are transported across national boundaries and thus subject to international conventions (International Environmental law). The regulations lay down procedures to be followed by those who handle special waste. Special waste is waste that is dangerous or difficult to handle, transport or treat so that special provisions are needed if human life is not to be threatened. The regulations will increase the amount of waste currently treated as special, deregulate pre-notification requirements for special movements and introduce fees for notifications.

For more: http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/special/index.htm

The Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999 enables new regulations to : 1. Implement the requirements of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive
2. Extend integrated control to around 5,000 extra industrial installations
3. Take a far wider range of environmental impacts into account such as noise, use of raw materials, accident prevention, site restoration and energy efficiency
4. Provide a consistent framework for the regulation of LAPC installations not covered by the Directive.

The new regime will maintain the current systems' central concept of a flexible, case by case approach to regulation which balances cost with environmental benefit.

Future Directions - Producer Responsibility

'Producer Responsibility' aims to reduce the environmental impacts of products at all stages of their life cycle and place the onus of the real environmental costs of the production and disposal of products on the producer.

It will be the responsibility of the producer to design products with the environmental impacts considered at all stages, including end of life recovery. The waste hierarchy helps producers reduce impacts of disposal, including production waste as well as final product disposal. Reprocessing 'closes the loop' from raw material use to end of life disposal.

In 1993 the UK Government issued a Producer Responsibility Challenge to certain sectors to recycle and recover post consumer products. Motor vehicles and their batteries, electronic and other electrical goods, newspapers and packaging are all under inspection.


The first law introduced under this principle is 'Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations 1997'. Producer responsibility for packaging waste shifts the way goods are produced. This responsibility will spread through all waste streams and into other areas of business.

The regulations mark a change in environmental legislation by focusing on the consumption and use of resources rather than dealing with emissions and pollution.
The packaging regulations aim to:

  • divert packaging from the waste stream by improving the way packaging is produced and used.

  • encourage producers of packaging to reduce, re-use, recycle and recover the packaging they handle.
Specialists in Global Environmental Packaging & Product Stewardship Requirements

The more packaging your company handles, the more packaging waste your company will need to recover and recycle. Companies are therefore encouraged to reconsider their supply of packaging by reducing or re-using packaging.

Motor Vehicles

The End of Life Vehicles (ELV) Directive (2000/53/EC), in force October 2000, sets standards for the scrapping of End of Life Vehicles. The Directive requires manufacturers to be liable for the disposal of all new cars from July 2002 and for old cars from January 2007. Manufacturers must meet recycling targets of 85% of all ELVs by January 2006, and 95% by January 2015. The Directive also makes sure that damaging substances, like lead, cadmium and mercury, are not dumped but recycled. The motor industry reckons this will involve nearly 2 million cars at a cost of £200 million.

The Directive should have been transposed into UK law by April 2002 and unless the UK does so by the end of 2002, EU legal action will follow and the UK could face a hefty daily fine.
For latest from DTI, check out http://www.dti.gov.uk/environment/consultations/elv.htm.


The European Union (EU) has drafted legislation on Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (the WEEE Directive) based on the concept of Extended Producer Responsibility. WEEE requires manufacturers to improve the design of their products in order to avoid the generation of waste and to facilitate the recovery and disposal of electronic scrap. This can be achieved through the phase out of hazardous materials, as well as the development of efficient systems of collection, re-use and recycling.

Check out Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition
Explains US opposition to WEEE

Producers will have a financial incentive to design their products with less hazardous and more recyclable materials. This change in the market economics - in effect the internalization of costs that are currently passed off to the general public - will encourage the design of products for repair, upgrade, re-use, dismantling and safer recycling. However, there is opposition to both from industry, particularly in the US.

It is clear that environmental regulations in the UK will not be made in the future without reference to EU Directives - and US concerns.

Find the regulations that may apply to your workplace - go to UK Environment Agency's Netregs Web Page, where you can also check
out forthcoming legislation.

Waste Incineration

The Waste Incineration (England and Wales) Regulations 2002 were introduced in late 2002 to enact the Waste Incineration Directive 2000/87/EC. These introduce more stringent operating conditions and set minimum technical requirements for waste incineration and co-incineration. The Regulations cover most waste incineration and co-incineration plants. The main aim is to prevent and limit negative environmental impacts of emissions to air, soil, surface and ground-water, and possible risks to human health, from the incineration and co-incineration of waste.

For more see http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/ppc/wasteincin/index.htm

click image to go to website
(c)Environment Agency (with permission)

Red List

This list was introduced in 1989 and remains, despite the presence of other amber, green and grey lists from Europe and elsewhere.

Enforcing authorities must be convinced that 'strict environmental quality standards are being met and maintained in receiving waters', before giving any organisation "discharge consents" for any of the dangerous substances on this list.

Substance Comments
Mercury and its compounds Fungicides, mostly banned.
Cadmium and its compounds Plating processes
Gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane Lindane insecticide
DDT Banned insecticide
Pentachlorophenol Wood Preservative
Hexachlorobenzene Fungicide for seed treatment
Hexachlorobutadiene Pesticide
Aldrin Banned insecticide
Dieldrin Banned insecticide
Endrin Banned insecticide
Dichlorvos (name "Vapona") Household insecticide common
1,2-Dichloroethane (called Ethylene Dichloride trichlorobenzene) Insecticidal Fumigant, also
Atrazine Total weedkiller
Simazine Total weedkiller
tributyltin compounds Marine anti-fouling biocide
trifluralin Soil acting weedkiller
Fenitrothion Organophosphate insecticide
Azinphos-methyl Organophosphate insecticide
Malathion Insecticide popular against lice
Endosulphan Organochlorine insecticide

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2002 Edition